Post by djoser-xyyman on Apr 2, 2010 8:26:13 GMT -5
About 800 BC, in central Italy, a mysterious culture flourished.
These people, called the Etruscans, are today regarded as the real founders of Rome.
The Romans were first a subject people of the Etruscans and later their conquerors.
Some Greeks held that the Etruscans were a branch of the Pelasgians, aboriginal inhabitants of the Aegean region.
The Pelasgians may have been the Sea People who around 1200 B.C. invaded the Egyptian Empire.
It was discovered that most of the languages of Europe belonged to one big language family called Indo-European but Etruscan was not one of them. The technology of DNA analysis has been applied to the question of origins.
A study published in the April 2007 issue of The American Journal of Human Genetics reports finding eleven lineages of mitochondrial DNA in Tuscany that have not been found elsewhere in Europe but do occur in the Near East.
In the Etruscan ruins there are craft objects from Greece, North Africa, southern France and Iberia.
Post by djoser-xyyman on Apr 2, 2010 8:33:56 GMT -5
By Mazigh :http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=15;t=002785
Some believe there is any relationship between Berbers and etruscans:
"On Etruscan and Libyan Names; A Comprative Study. By Daniel G. Brinton, M.D. (Read before the American Philosophical Society, Febrauray 7, 1890)
I- Introductory: Libyan Epigraphy In October last (1889) I laid before this Society a series of considerations drawn from the physical traits of the Etruscans, their customs, arts and language, going to show that they were an offshoot or colony of the Libyans or Numidians of North Africa -that stock now represented by the Kabyles of Algeria, the Rifians of Morocco, the Touaregs of the Great Desert and the other so-called Berber tribes. So far as I was aware, this opinion had never been advanced before, although it wo uld seem a natural and obvious one. Nor have I yet found that any writer ahd clearly stated it previously; though I have discovered that occasional earlier observers have been struck with some of the resemblances which so impressed me, and I am glad to add the weight of their testimony to my own. Thus, M. Louis Rinn, Vice-President of the Historical Society of Algiers, after alluding to what he considers a point of resemblance between the Berber and the Etruscan language, adds, "A comparative study of these two peoples would certainly bring into prominence other similarities, yet more remarkable, in their tongues."* M. Rinn quotes the old travelers, Dr. T. Shaw, as suggesting one or more similarities in Kabyle and Etruscan place names, but he gives no exact reference, and a search through Shaw's Travels has not enabled me to find the passages...
Post by djoser-xyyman on Apr 2, 2010 8:38:33 GMT -5
Quote: . All mitochondrial lineages observed among the Etruscans appear typically European or West Asian, but only a few haplotypes were found to have an exact match in a modern mitochondrial database, raising new questions about the Etruscans’ fate after their assimilation into the Roman state
Translation: They are not phenotypically European but the mtDNA is European. In other words they did not LOOK like modern Europeans.
Seems like the ***Haplotype**** vs haploGroup is really where the rubber hits the road in genetics.
=== The Etruscans: A Population-Genetic Study Cristiano Vernesi,1 David Caramelli,2 Isabelle Dupanloup,1,* Giorgio Bertorelle,1 Martina Lari,2 Enrico Cappellini,2 Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi,2 Brunetto Chiarelli,2 Loredana Castrý`,3 Antonella Casoli,4 Francesco Mallegni,5 Carles Lalueza-Fox,6 and Guido Barbujani1
The origins of the Etruscans, a non-Indo-European population of preclassical Italy, are unclear. There is broad agreement that their culture developed locally, but the Etruscans’ evolutionary and migrational relationships are largely unknown. In this study, we determined mitochondrial DNA sequences in multiple clones derived from bone samples of 80 Etruscans who lived between the 7th and the 3rd centuries B.C. In the first phase of the study, we eliminated all specimens for which any of nine tests for validation of ancient DNA data raised the suspicion that either degradation or contamination by modern DNA might have occurred. On the basis of data from the remaining 30 individuals, the Etruscans appeared as genetically variable as modern populations. No significant heterogeneity emerged among archaeological sites or time periods, suggesting that different Etruscan communities shared not only a culture but also a mitochondrial gene pool. Genetic distances and sequence comparisons show closer evolutionary relationships with the eastern Mediterranean shores for the Etruscans than for modern Italian populations. All mitochondrial lineages observed among the Etruscans appear typically European or West Asian, but only a few haplotypes were found to have an exact match in a modern mitochondrial database, raising new questions about the Etruscans’ fate after their assimilation into the Roman state.
Paleoanthropological studies have only proved broad similarities between the Etruscans and their neighbors of the Iron Age (Barker and Rasmussen 1998). Archaeological evidence suggests that the Etruscan culture developed locally, with some features pointing to an Eastern influence (Pallottino 1975; Barker and Rasmussen 1998). However, it is not clear if such influence reflects only trading and cultural exchange or rather some sort of shared biological ancestry.
Post by djoser-xyyman on Apr 2, 2010 8:39:56 GMT -5
Database of Modern Mitochondrial Sequences
Obviously the Ancient Etruscans are NOT contemporary Europeans.
Notice the Etruscan, Egyptians do not group with other Europeans. See chart above..
By themselves, DNA sequences cannot tell us who the Etruscans were and where they came from, but they can provide crucial information on two related questions: • 1. Were the Etruscans a single population, or were they simply a set of individuals who shared a language and a culture but not a common ancestry? • 2. What are the genetic relationships between the Etruscans and modern populations, and do these relationships suggest any genealogical or migrational links between the Etruscans and other Eurasians
I would hope that one would think, the whole mediteranean basin intermixed. If North Africa exerted cultural and biological influence on the Etruscan then the same must be true the other way around. Then why do Afrocentrists have a problem acknowledging European pedigree within the AE lineage? Judging from this thread, you don't seem to have a problem claiming the multiplicity of Etruscan heritage. Yet if I were to guess, you'd have a problem w/the claim that AE had European ancestry.
Post by djoser-xyyman on Apr 2, 2010 8:42:25 GMT -5
, Etruscans and Greeks: Genetics and Ethnicity Dr. Orville Boyd Jenkins
Arab Gene? The term "Arab gene flows" troubles me also, since this reads back into pre-history a comparatively recent identification. At the depth of 10,000 years and more, I don't see how we can identify anything as what we now know by the term "Arab."
What we do see is that a stream of human movement that seems to have moved through the middle of what we call the Arabian Peninsula thruogh what is now Syria then on westward moved into the peninsula we now know as Italy. This, you will note on the excellent and amazing genetic mapping of National Geographic, is only one of two major streams they indicate.
The other genetic stream comes from northern Asia, through northern Europe and down western Europe into the northern Italian Peninsula.
The sequential "tracer genes" in human male DNA give us a rough time frame and sequence of human migration, but don't tell us about the physical characteristics or types as such. The people known as "Arabs" now are also a descendant people, and mixed, even in the Arabian Peninsula. There is a wide range of shades, physical types, and characteristics among the "Arab" peoples.
It would seem that the farther back in time we go, the less differentiated the gene pool of any particular population group would be. This is because all indications are that all human populations developed from the same origin. All differentiation came from an original population group.
Dark Greeks Lots of dark people speak Greek today. Western Europeans usually think of Greeks as dark-haired, dark-eyed and darker skinned. But this tends to be a characteristic of all the Mediterranean peoples. It seems likely that the Greek-speaking peoples moved in on a darker race, pre-inhabiting the region.
Post by djoser-xyyman on Apr 2, 2010 9:03:32 GMT -5
This is one thing that I find puzzling. Why did the Etruscans "settle" on the western shores of the peninsula.. . .if we are to believe they came from Turkey.
The other question is who were the Turks at that time. Did the genetic study compare Turks from the same period as the Etruscans, or modern day Turks? Did the haplotype matching they did compare peoples from the same period.
At any rate, the Etruscans migrated to Italy, in the face of the invasion of primitive Greeks around 1000 B.C. (Note the Greek "Classical Era" would not arrive for 600 years.) The area where the Etruscans settled, immediately to the north of Rome, came to be known as Etruria, sometimes called Tuscany, both derivatives of the word "Etruscan."
Note that Etruria is on the western, or far, side of the Italian peninsula, when approaching from the east. It is also Italy’s most fertile quarter. This indicates that the Etruscans doubtless probed the peninsula before picking out the most desirable area.***REALLY!???**** Etruscan technology was far in advance of the natives they encountered. They easily conquered them, conscripted them and then used them to further their conquests. (Howe, 301)
Etruscans; multi-ethnic; mediteranean basin consisting of dark and light caucasians. Countries that make up the basin, which host dark and light caucasoids are, for example, greece, north africa (morroco, algeria, libya), spain, turkey, france, egypt, etc...
Post by djoser-xyyman on Apr 8, 2010 14:29:11 GMT -5
The origin of Cretan populations as determined by characterization of HLA alleles
Abstract: The Cretan HLA gene profile has been compared with those of other Mediterranean populations in order to provide additional information regarding the history of their origins. The allele frequencies, genetic distances between populations, relatedness dendrograms and correspondence analyses were calculated. Our results indicate that the Indoeuropean Greeks may be considered as a Mediterranean population of a more recent origin (after 2000 B.C.), while all other studied Mediterraneans (including Cretans) belong to an older substratum which was present in the area since pre- Neolithic times. A significant Turkish gene flow has not been detected in the Greek or Cretan populations, although Greeks and Turks have two high frequency HLA-DRB-DQB haplotypes in common. It is proposed that Imazighen (Caucasoid Berbers living at present in the North African coast and Saharan areas) are the remains of pre-Neolithic Saharan populations which could emigrate northwards between about 8000–6000 B.C., when desert desiccation began. They also could be part of the stock that gave rise to Sumerians, Cretans and Iberians; this is supported by both linguistic and HLA genetic data.
Post by djoser-xyyman on Apr 21, 2010 8:26:46 GMT -5
KNOSSOS: FAKES, FACTS, AND MYSTERY By Mary Beard
New York Review of Books August 13, 2009 (posted circa Aug. 4) Pages 58 & 60-61
"[N]o category of objects has ever been more systematically faked than Minoan antiquities," wrote Mary Beard in the Aug. 13 number of the New York Review of Books, reviewing a new study of the role of Knossos in twentieth-century culture. -- Presided over by wealthy British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans (1851-1941), who was able to excavate Knossos because he bought the site wholesale, the reconstruction of the culture of Knossos must be reconsidered, because "a substantial number of . . . 'Minoan' objects, are certain forgeries." -- Author Cathy Gere thinks that this has implications for contemporary culture, because "t was at Knossos, she argues, that prehistory gave shape to a prophetic modernist vision, which repeatedly reinvented the Minoans as Dionysiac, peaceable protofeminists in touch with their inner souls. . . . [T]hey almost always appeared in stark contrast to the militaristic Aryan culture of their roughly contemporary prehistoric rivals, the Mycenaeans. From de Chirico to the Summer of Love, from Jane Ellen Harrison to Freud and H.D., theorists, artists, and dreamers found their future in the remote Minoan past. . . . Knossos and the Prophets of Modernism traces the story of the modern engagement with Knossos from Evans's first visit to Crete in the late nineteenth century almost up to the present day. It leads from the avant-garde art of de Chirico, through the famous archaeological obsessions of Freud and H.D. ('a psycho-archaeological folie à deux' that brought a version of Minoan primitivism to the analyst's couch), to the frankly dotty ideas of matriarchal goddesses floated by Robert Graves and Marija Gimbutas." ...
Post by djoser-xyyman on Apr 21, 2010 8:30:08 GMT -5
The masterpieces of Minoan art are not what they seem. The vivid frescoes that once decorated the walls of the prehistoric palace at Knossos in Crete are now the main attraction of the Archaeological Museum in the modern city of Heraklion, a few miles from the site of Knossos. Dating from the early or mid-second millennium BC, they are some of the most famous icons of ancient European culture, reproduced on countless postcards and posters, T-shirts and refrigerator magnets: the magnificent young "prince" with his floral crown, walking through a field of lilies; the five blue dolphins patrolling their underwater world between minnows and sea urchins; the three "ladies in blue" (a favorite Minoan color) with their curling black hair, low-cut dresses, and gesticulating hands, as if they have been caught in mid-conversation. The prehistoric world they evoke seems in some ways distant and strange -- yet, at the same time, reassuringly recognizable and almost modern.
The truth is that these famous icons are largely modern. As any sharp-eyed visitor to the Heraklion museum can spot, what survives of the original paintings amounts in most cases to no more than a few square inches. The rest is more or less imaginative reconstruction, commissioned in the first half of the twentieth century by Sir Arthur Evans [1851-1941], the British excavator of the palace of Knossos (and the man who coined the term "Minoan" for this prehistoric Cretan civilization, after the mythical King Minos who is said to have held the throne there). As a general rule of thumb, the more famous the image now is, the less of it is actually ancient.
Post by djoser-xyyman on Apr 21, 2010 8:32:43 GMT -5
It is perhaps no wonder that when Evelyn Waugh visited Heraklion in the 1920s he found a disconcertingly modern collection of paintings in the museum. "It is impossible to disregard the suspicion," he wrote in Labels (an account of his Mediterranean travels, published in 1930), "that their painters have tempered their zeal for accurate reconstruction with a somewhat inappropriate predilection for covers of Vogue."