Even the cattle came from Africa May 5, 2014 10:46:10 GMT -5
Post by djoser-xyyman on May 5, 2014 10:46:10 GMT -5
Uber Africa! Lol! (wink)Sage. The origins of the AEians is a done deal. Origins and timing of modern Europeans is very interesting even their cattle.
Genetic diversity goes a long way even with cattle…The title speaks from itself. Read on.
Mitochonddat DNA variat?oa in ancient European cattle: tracing the introduction
mutes of domestic Bus tuurus. - Andemng, C.', Baublienean y, Buchenstrasse 3, DO1097 Dresden, Germany
The domesticatim of animals, and especially cattle, was one of the most important processes in Eurasian prehistory. . But the scenario may be oversimplified; for example undetected local European domestication of aurochs may fit into the mitochondrial pattern. Thus, the question of how domesticated cattle were introduced into Europe is still largely unsettled. To investigate the origin of the European Bos tourus, we have typed 150 sequences from Neolithic and Bronze Age cattle remains, of which 31 have previously been published and 119 are new. We estimate the nucleotide diversity (n) in the areas close to the hypothesized entrances and also in central Europe. This is done by testing for differences in nucleotide diversity between populstions through non-parametric bootstrapping. This supports the theory of an external origin for European cattle and.
The domestication of wild animals and plants initiated the process that enabled the making of the modem world '. The nature. location and timing of cattle domestication has been, and still, is a subject of msiderable interest. Anatolia up through southeastern Eumpe, but also via routes around the Black Sea or via Africa and over the straits of Gibralta.'.M itochondrial DNA studies has show that modem Boa Taurus group in five geographicalIy distributd haplogroups designated T, Tl, T2, T3 and T4 3* s. The dominant haplogroup in Europe is T3; this haplopup is also found in the Near East where additionally haplogroups of T, T1 and T2 are found. The dominant haplogmup in Africa and the Near East are T1 and T4 respectively.
We therefore assess nucleotide diversity n in ancient cattle remains in three geographic areas close to suggested introduction routes, and compare it with nucleotide diversity in ancient European mainland cattle.
Material and methods
We collected 139 cattle bone and teeth samples from Spain, Greece, Uhine, Sweden, Lithuania and Germany, of which 119 yielded sufficient reproducible sequence
Results and discussion
We were able to retrieve reproducibfe sequence data fmm 119 out of 139 prehistoric samples. A subset of samples (n=T5) analyzed for biochemical preservation indicated that
The samples in Neolithic and Bronze Age sites in Europe display all major haplogropud found in modem European cattle (T, T1, T2, and T3), and also the extinct aurochs type. When the dataset was grouped corresponding to four regions, we found several haplopups represented in the Iberian. Greek, and Ukrainian datasets. However, in central Europe we only found the T3 haplogroup. T3 was also the most common haplogroup in Iberia, Ukraine, and Greece, which is consistent with the pathern in modern European cattle (Figure 3). The proposal of Iberia as an entrance route for domestic cattle is supported by the presence of Tl in the dataset. This haplotype is common in Africa and occurs in Iberia, but not in the rest of Western or Cenkal Europe: the T1 may therefore have entered Iberia as part of a North Afican coastal route. T1 i s also present in the samples from Ukraine , and may have arrived here from the Near East, where it is also present but to a lesser degree. Thus, while T1 does not necessarily imply an African origin, its frequency and diversity in Africa still makes it indicative as an African marker
While the ancient central European dataset contained least variation (d.0024), the remaining three ancient dataset all contained more variation by themselves (d.0068 for Greece, 0.0102 for Ukraine, and 0.0068 for Iberia; bootstrap p4.034 for ancient centr
The samples from Iberia, Greece and Ukraine showed higher variation, and are all from areas located on proposd routes of f domestic cattle into Europe while the samples from central Europe are not. This result therefore supports a scenario where cattle are introduced from areas outside Europe, with very limited new admixture of local aurochs mitochondrial DNA. However, it does not exclude the possibility of hybridization with aurochs bulls, ….w e suggest that the early European cattle were domesticated outside Europe and came in to the continent via Gibraltar, southeastern Greece) Europe and around the Black Sea.
Conclusion: Migrating Africans brought their cattle into Europe. Iberians, Italy and Greece!!!! Sound familiar? Because it is.