Post by Tukuler al~Takruri on Mar 5, 2020 17:56:33 GMT -5
JA Rogers (1942) Sex and Race v2 is where I first read of them. Will transcribe some of the book's pages as time and will permit.
MIXED BLOOD GROUPS WHO ARE KNOWN AS OTHER THAN NEGROES
There are many groups of mixed Caucasian, Negro, and Indian ancestry, who either deny their Negro strain or claim to be of foreign origin. Among them are the "Moors" of Delaware; the Melungeons of Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee; the Croatans and the Rednecks of Virginia; the Jackson Whites of the Ramapo Mountains, New York; and the Gouldstown Settlers of New Jersey.
The "Moors" of Delaware asserts that they came to America prior to the Revolution and are descendants of the Moors that were expelled from Spain.
Post by Tukuler al~Takruri on Mar 5, 2020 18:40:26 GMT -5
However, GP Fisher, former attorney-general of Delaware, who once prosecuted one of them in a criminal case and had occasion to study their history, gives their origins as follows:
A white woman, named Regua, thought to be Irish, bought a Negro, "very tall, shapely and muscular" who was said to be a Congo prince and after living with him a few months, married him and reared a large family. The children could not marry Caucasian because of their color so they took Nanticoke Indians. "This race of people," he says, "were for the first two or three generations confined principally to the southeastern portion of Sussex County and more particularly in the neighborhood of Lewes, Millsboro, Georgia and Milton, but during the last sixty or seventy years has increased the area of this settlement very materially and are now to be found in almost every hundred in each county in the state but mostly in Sussex and Kent. From their origin to the present time they have continued to segregate themselves from the American citizens of African descent having their own churches and schools as much as practicable, . . .
"I have spoken of this race as a strange people because I have known some families among them all of whose children possess the features, hair and eyes of the pure Caucasian, while in other families the children would all be exceedingly swarthy in complexion but with perfectly straight black hair and occasionally a family whose children range through the entire racial gamut from the perfect blond to at least a quadroon, mulatto, and quite a number who possessed all the appearance of a redheaded, freckled face Hibernian."
Post by Tukuler al~Takruri on Mar 5, 2020 19:10:20 GMT -5
The Croatans of Virginia and North Carolina are also said to be of Negro slave orign with an admixture of white and Indian, according to the Bureau of Vital Statistics of Virginia. Powell says:
"In the southern part of this county, near the North Carolina border we meet again with a mixed group, making pretensions to Indian origin. There are about 300 of them in Virginia, but the group extends over the border into North Carolina where they are twice as numerous. They are variously called 'Cuban Indians,' 'Portuguese' or 'Croatan Indians,' according to the explanation given of the origin as springing respectively from immigrant Cuban Aborigines, from shipwrecked Portuguese sailors, or from Sir Walter Raleigh's lost colony. Whites in this region assert that they are principally descended from 'Old Free Issues,' (that is, slaves freed and provided for by their former masters), with some infusion of Indian blood."
Post by Tukuler al~Takruri on Mar 6, 2020 20:51:36 GMT -5
Owned it but never thought much of Bradley's Dawn Voyage. He lied he never knew vanSertima's ... Before Columbus. It does have good relevant info but borrow before you buy it.
Can't vouch for neither Bradley nor Rootsie. No longer own the book + too lazy to rvw it meself. So here's a review:
Dawn Voyage I
Dawn Voyage: The Black African Discovery of America by Michael Bradley
Excerpts and Commentary
"In 1444, the first consignment of black African slaves was landed on the quays of Lisbon. The slaves had come directly from the mouth of the Senegal River…By the next year, the Potruguese had inched slightly further down the African coast and had rounded Cape Verde." (4)
"Cape Verde projects into the Atlantic Ocean at latitude 15 degrees north. The cape is only 1900 miles from the coast of Brazil as the crow flies…Cape Verde mariners had, despite the capricious deflections of tradewinds and equatorial currents, much the shortest passage across the Atlantic to the regions of the New World where high cultures flourished…it is written that they voyaged upon the Atlantic and that these black Africans sent an expedition of 'two hundred ships' into the west not two centuries before the Portuguese doubled Cape Verde. The predecessor of Emperor Kankan Musa of Mali sponsored this expedition…in 1307 A.D." (5)
Colombus was no fool. He had either spoken to [Africans] from the Verde Islands themselves, read the accounts of the Empire of Mali, or spoken with other sailors who knew this story. He knew there was land within sailing distance of Iberia, and he even knew quite accurately how long that distance was. Did he think it was India? This is hard to say, but he hedged his bets: in his agreement with Ferdinand and Isabella on April 30, 1492, he was entitled to "take possession of and govern in his lifetime any 'islands and mainlands' he might discover before reaching Asia." (8)
But clearly, 1307 does not mark the Africans' first voyage to America.
"For how otherwise are we to explain the statues with Negroid features found at La Venta, or the representations of black men in the murals of the Temple of Warriors at Chichen Itza, or the presence of the tropical African bottle gourd in the New World? How otherwise can we explain that in both Central America and in the eastern foothills of the Andes linguists find Negroid languages related to Mandinga, the language spoken by the people around Cape Verde?." (12)
The statues from La Venta date from the beginning of the Olmec culture, the seed civilization of the ones that came later, the Maya and the Aztec among them. This would put the first contact between Africa and America at at least 3,000 years ago. And here is another in a long line of the 'forgetting of history' in order to further national interests by being able to make a clear claim of 'discovery.'
"But no such discovery (by the Africans) could have been forgotten so completely without the help of the slave trade, which would ultimately form the basis of the European view of all black achievements." (15)
The coast of West Africa was nearly completely depopulated through slavery , with the few refugees fleeing inland . An empire more advanced than any existing in Europe at the time, a place of beauty and riches and learning, collapsed under the weight. Here is a description of the people of Mali from about 1300 A.D. from Islamic geographer Ibn Battuta:
"They are seldom unjust, and have a greater abhorrence of injustice than any other people. Their sultan shows no mercy to anyone who is found guilty of the least act of it. There is complete security in the country. Neither traveler nor inhabitant in it has anything to fear from robbers and men of violence. They do not confiscate the property of any white man who dies in their country, even if it be uncounted wealth. On the contrary, they give it into the charge of some trustworthy person among the whites, until the rightful heir takes possession of it." (16)
And after 400 years of the slave trade:
"Truly has Benin been called a city of blood. Its history is one long record of savagery of the most debased kind…Blood was everywhere…On the right was a crucifixion tree with a double crucifixion on it, the two poor wretches stretched out facing west, with their arms bound together in the middle…At the base were skulls and bones, literally strewn about, the debris of former sacrifices and down every main road were two or more human sacrifices." (16)
Of course the European observer in 1897 made no connection between what he saw in Benin and the ravages of the slave trade. It is so convenient to forget. David Hume, that 'great' philosopher of the European 'Enlightenment' can write in the 1800's:
"For countless centuries, while all the pageant of history swept by, the African remained unmoved-in primitive savagery…No ingenious manufactures among them, no arts, no sciences. No approach to the civilization of his white fellow creatures, whom he imitates as a monkey does a man." (17)
The ancestors of these West Africans were the mothers and fathers of Ancient Egypt: and every Egyptian knew it. They called the lands to the south "God's Land."
It was more of the same in America. The anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss:
"In what used to be called Hispaniola (today Haiti and Santo Domingo) the native population numbered about one hundred thousand in 1492, but had dropped to 200 about a century later, since people died of horror and disgust at European civilization even more than of smallpox and physical ill-treatment." (17)
These survivors were described by their conquerors as "lazy, filthy pagans, of bestial morals, no better than dogs, and fit only for slavery, in which state alone there might be some hope of converting them to Christianity."
So history is not simply forgotten or lost, but suppressed by the conquerors so that they may rewrite it to justify their barbarity. No wonder so few Europeans have bothered to find it out. They would have to change their lives.
Continue to Dawn Voyage II
Rootsie need learn to write w/o drudging up all that negative jazz,
Post by Tukuler al~Takruri on Mar 6, 2020 20:54:24 GMT -5
Dawn Voyage II
Dawn Voyage: The Black African Discovery of America by Michael Bradley
Excerpts and Commentary
The West African empires of Ghana, Mali, Songhay, Kanem-Bornu, and others, only reverted to tribalism with the onslaught of slavery and the subsequently successful Muslim invasion. The Muslim attempts at invasion were all thwarted until slavery had denuded West Africa. What the Europeans did not realize when they spoke of the barbarous and backward Africa they saw is that they were looking upon their own reflection. The real 'Heart of Darkness', as Joseph Conrad well knew, was Europe itself. It is morbidly amusing that Europe cited 'human sacrifice' and 'cannibalism' as evidence of the 'barbarity' and 'backwardness' of the people they encountered in Africa and America. Truly it was looking through a distorted mirror at its very own face.
West Africa in 1444 was a place of great cities, surpassing anything in Europe at the time, a place of immense wealth from gold and salt, and was possessed of an advanced civil society. One evidence of this is the status of women, so much higher than anything yet seen in European or Arabian lands. Ibn Battuta upon visiting the recently Muslimized Mali:
"Their men show no sign of jealousy whatsoever. No one claims descent from his father, but on the contrary from his mother's brother. A person's heirs are his sister's sons, not his own sons. This is a thing which I have seen nowhere in the world except among the Indians of Malabar. But THOSE are heathens; THESE people are Muslims, punctilios in observing the hours of prayer, studying books of law, and in memorizing the Koran. Yet their women show no bashfulness before men and do not veil themselves, though they are assiduous in attending prayer." (31)
AFRICA AND IRELAND
It is instructive to look at the commonalities of Black African and ancient Briton and Celtic culture. They each possessed great mathematical and astronomical knowledge, a rich oral literary tradition, and a complex religious system. They worked bronze and weaved. They built monumental structures that were both religious and astronomical in nature. They each had a distinctive language, but borrowed their alphabets from others. Most people lived very simply. "Like the Africans, the Celts seem to have concentrated on religious and literary development rather than technological invention." (35)
"Recalibrated carbon dating now shows that the megaliths of northwest Europe are older than the Egyptian pyramids, and it is very possible that the mathematical and astronomical knowledge needed to build monumentally came originally out of the lost Saharan world and traveled with Celts more directly and more quickly than it did in Egypt. There is every reason to believe that the intellectual foundation of civilization existed among the Celts and Black Africans no less than among the earliest Egyptians and Sumerians. The difference in subsequent development was due to the limitations of environment: we should not be fooled into assuming the Celts and black Africans were culturally retarded, though their material lifestyle may have been so." (36)
"...We know that these seeds of culture came from the Sahara to Egypt, to Nubia, across the Mediterranean to Greece-and to the 'Celts' in North Africa who later carried the seeds of culture across the Mediterranean to the 'Celtiberians' of Iberia (Spain and Portugal) and on to Ireland..."
We are speaking here in the range of 5,000-3,000 BC. It is interesting that the Irish have always been regarded as the 'niggers' of Europe, and the same language used to disparage them and their achievements was used against Africans and Native Americans.
One reason why it has been difficult to clearly see the cultural influence of Africa on the the 'New World' is the African habit of "adopting the gods and ancestors of the original inhabitants of any new place."
"...Europeans have dispossessed the original inhabitants of their lands and gods and imposed European gods upon them. At the same time they segregated themselves from the native population in a superior social position. The process is so 'natural' to us that we automatically assess cultural influence in terms of imported and imposed gods and customs, in terms of conquest." (37)
We associate 'discovery' with 'conquest'. It is widely accepted that the Norse and Celts visited America long before Columbus did, and yet since they did not come to conquer, we tend to dismiss this fact.
"As Basil Davidson has explained at some length, black Africans conceived of gods as granting the right to settle in, but not own in our Western sense, land under the gods' protection. Therefore, instead of imposing their own gods when they migrated into a new region, black Africans more commonly adopted whatever gods were already worshiped in the existing inhabitants." (36)
Here is an example:
"Wene, chief on the incomers, thereupon married into one of the clans of the people already settled in the area. But the clan he chose was one whose ancestors were recognized as holding spiritual title to the land...He could properly take over the title of mani and rule as Mani-Kongo, Lord of Congo, duly accepted by the spirit of the earth." (37)
Now tell me, where in this story of European conquest do the 'civilized' ones truly exist?
Post by Tukuler al~Takruri on Mar 6, 2020 21:07:06 GMT -5
100 yrs ago Leo Wiener pioneered the extensive data method in support of W Afr -> Americas documentation. The massive 3 vol work is still available though old and not an easy read and w/t racialism of the times. I.e., though investigating maritime Mali, in Africa &/t Discovery of America he chalks all the work up to "Arabs".
Iirc Harold Lawrence (Kofi Wangara) in The Black Scholar was the primary investigator before vanSertima.
Van Sertima is certain that even without nautical skills the crossing is actuated by winds and currents.