Post by Tukuler al~Takruri on Feb 18, 2011 16:33:18 GMT -5
What is Nubia? Without defining Nubia confusion over the subject is possible.
Some people see a Nubia as everything upNile from the Egypt of the pharaohs even before the New Kingdom and even though the word wasn't used then.
Some folk see a Nubia as synonymous with a limited region no further south than the cataract 2nd cataract.
Others see a border changing Nubia as Egyptian annexing rolled ever southward although New Kingdom Egyptians used the word Kush as in King's Son of Kush in that era.
Kush flexed its muscles and ripped, from various centers at various times, a territory from the junction of Blue and White Niles to the 1st catarct near Elephantine but it gets called Nubia too except for Egypt and the Levant (Meggido) when under its control.
If so, southern Nubia (more or less all Meroe's territory) is south or upNile from Upper Nubia, 2nd to 4th cataract (Kerma - Napata).
Post by Tukuler al~Takruri on Feb 18, 2011 16:35:42 GMT -5
In the middle of the 8th century the Makurian "King of Kings" Cyriacus invaded up to Lower Egypt ending Arab persecutions against the Copts their Christian co-religionists.
Nubia as an African bred and born polity was finished when the 16th century came in. After that "Arab" identity became the in thing after Arabian refugee influx in the wake of inter- Arab conflicts on the peninsula.
This was implemented upon Shakandu's treachery and enlistment of Arab aid to secure his usurpation of Makuria's throne. The same for Amai. Arabs of the numerous banu Kanz dominated Lower Nubia while the Guhayna Arabs dominated Upper Nubia.
The Shilluk Funj kingdom arose and Amara Dunqas held southern Nubia in the face of a confederated Arab onslaught. They did, however, eventually become Muslim. Funj government traded hands between Arabs and "Hamaji," as the Arabs dubbed Funj's unmixed blacks until the murderous Turk Muhammad Ali of the 19th century.
Post by Tukuler al~Takruri on Feb 18, 2011 16:36:59 GMT -5
What we see over millennia of history in the Nile Valley is a steady influx of Semitic speakers who from the start concentrated in Delta Lower Egypt precipitating ever southward marrying with Nile indigenees whose mixed progeny, and themselves, acquire rulership over the Nile Valley and usurp the identity of "true" Egyptian.
Whether symbolic or real Narmer fought them and limited their entry. Other pharaohs did so, the most notable ones were (part) Nehesi and birthed the Middle and New Kingdoms.
Napata stepped in to set things right for Egypt. Meroe blocked north Mediterranean conquests. Makaria barred mass Arab entry into Nubia and Makaria stepped in to set things right for Egypt.
Alwa's reaction to Arabs seems similar to Late Period Egypt's reaction to Persian designs and Funj went the way of the centuries long toll on Egypt where Semitic speakers precipitating ever southward marrying with Nile indigenees as they or their mixed progeny acquire rulership over the Nile Valley or over the minds of the rulers of the Nile Valley.
Today we see another bastion of wholly indigenous ancestry stem off largely indigenous ancestored Semitic speakers' aggression and draw another Nile Valley indigenee border like so many times in the past as they establish the nation of South Sudan.